The following table lists various Roman towns and the names of their modern counterparts. If you know of any others and can point me to an appropriate source so I can verify your information, e-mail me.

ROMAN NAME MODERN NAME ROMAN NAME MODERN NAME
Alesia Alise-St.Reine (Fr.) Forum Sempronii Fossombrone
Altinum Altino Gades Cadiz (Spain)
Amiternum Amiternum Genua Genoa
Ancona Ancona Hadria Atri (Adria)
Antium Anzio Iguvium Gubbio
Aquileia Aquileia Lanuvium Lanuvio
Aquinum Aquino Lavicum Labici
Aricia Ariccia Lavinium Pratica
Ariminum Rimini Luca Lucca
Arpinum Arpino Luceria Lucera
Augusto Magus Senus (France) Lugdunum Lyon, France
Arretium Arezzo Luna Luni
Asculum Ascoli Piceno Mantua Mantova
Asisium Assisi Massilia Marseilles (France)
Aternus Pescara Mediolanum Milan
Asculum Ascoli Piceno Misenum Capo di Miseno
Auximum Osimo Mutina Modena
Baiae Baia Neapolis Naples
Barium Bari Nola Nola
Beneventum Benevento Nuceria Nocera
Bellovacum Beauvais (France)
Bononia Balogna Opitergium Oderzo
Brigantium La Coruña (Spain) Osca Huesca (Spain)
Brundisium Brindisi Ostia Ostia
Calagurris Calahorra (Spain) Paestum Paestum
Camerinum Camerino Patavium Padua
Camulodunum Colchester (UK) Perusia Perugia
Cannae Canne Pharsalus Pharsala (Greece)
Canusium Canosa Pisae Pisa
Capua Santa Maria di Capua Vetere Pisaurum Pesaro
Casinum Cassino Placentia Piacenza
Castrum Truentinum Pompeii ——
Cingulum Cingoli Puteoli Pozzuoli
Clusium Chiusi Ravenna Ravenna
Comum Como Reate Rieti
Consentia Cosenza Regium Lepidum Reggio Nell'Emilia
Corfinium Pentima Rhegium Reggio di Calabria
Cortona Cortona Roma Rome
Cosa Cosa Segusio Susa
Cremona Cremona Sulmo Sulmona
Cumae

(None) It was located about 

12 miles (19 km) west of Rome

Tarentum Taranto
Dertona Tortona Tarraco Taragona (Spain)
Dertosa Tortosa Teanum Sidicinum Teano
Dyrrachium Durres (Albania) Tergeste Trieste
Fanum Fortunae Fano Tibur Tivoli
Firmum Fermo Ticinum Pavia
Florentia Florence Tridentum Trento
Forum Anni Polla Venusia Venosa
Forum Cornelii Imola Vercellae Vercelli
Forum Julii Fréjus (Fr.) Verona Verona
Forum Livii Forli Verulanium St. Albans (UK)