Had absolute power over rome; was supreme military and judicial authority
By the senate and approved by the people
State of emergency declared
Usually was a capable military commander
Master Of The Horse (1)
Second in command to the Dictator
State of emergency declared.
Take over the duties of the Consuls
Hold election for Consuls
By The Senate
Must be a senator
Appointed when the state is without Consuls due to death or other cause
Military Tribune (6 for each standing legion)
Served as officers in the legions
Commanded a century and/or served on the command staff
By A Consul
10 years service in the field or 10 years readiness to answer the call.
Typically 26-29 years of age at the earliest
Patricians were the privileged class of rome–the large landowners; they dominated political affairs
Plebeians were the roman citizens who weren't patricians
During this period, every roman citizen had the privilege of voting on legislation and in the election of government officials
The normal progression (The Cursus Honorum–The Course Of Honors) through the various offices was: quaestor, curule aedile, praetor, consul, and censor.
Not everyone followed the normal progression (e.g., Marius and Pompey)
Tribune Of The People, Censor, Dictator, And Master Of The Horse weren't regarded as true magistracies
The minimum interval between holding various magistracies was 2 years
To win a magistracy suo anno (in one's year) meant to win the magistracy at the earliest possible age
The Comitia Centuriata met in the Campus Martius. It consisted of citizens divided according to property value and age into 373 voting units called Centuries. This assembly decided between war and peace and it elected the higher officials (Censors, Consuls, Praetors). Presided over by a Consul, Praetor, or Interrex.
The Comitia Tributa met in the Roman Forum for legislation and judgments, and in the Campus Martius for elections. It consisted of citizens divided into 35 "tribes". It elected the lower ranking officials (Quaestor, Aedile, Etc.) And acted as a court of appeal in legal cases not involving capital punishment. it also was a legislative body which votes on legal measures submitted to it by the presiding magistrate. Presided over by a Consul Or Praetor; and, sometimes by a Curule Aedile.
Every Roman citizen belonged to both the Comitia Centuriata and the Comitia Tributa
The Concilium Plebis met in the roman forum for legislation and judgments, and in the Campus Martius for elections. It consisted entirely of plebeians divided into their 35 tribes. It may have elected the Plebeian Tribunes and the Plebeian Aediles, But evidence so far is inconclusive presided over by a Tribune Of The Plebs or an Aedile of the Plebs.