Epithets And Other Roman Interjections

The Romans weren't much different from us. When frustrated or angry, they, too,name-called, swore, and cursed their fellow man. In the following table, I've listed some of the more common interjections used. Some of the sources I've drawn these from are Latin dictionaries, an informative on-line conversation with C.J. Cherryh on CompuServe, and various other books included in the bibliography on the Ancient Rome page.

Unfortunately, I don't really have any idea as to which of these were used in the Late Republican era and which may have evolved later during the Empire. So if you have any information as to when any of these interjections first appeared or were commonly used, please Contact Me and point me to a reference or other bona fide information source. Also, if you know of any additional Roman interjections used during this period, I'd like to hear about them too.

LATIN WORD OR PHRASE ROUGH LITERAL TRANSLATION OTHER POSSIBLE TRANSLATIONS NOTES
Aio! Really?! You don't mean it! Expression of surprise
Certo Pol! Most assuredly!
Cunnus! Cunt! Strumpet! Whore!
Di Immortales! Immortal Gods! Good Gods! Gods Above! Used when startled
Di Omnes! All the Gods! Gods! Used when startled
Dis vos aufert or Dis te aufort! May the Gods Take You Off! Devil take you! Damn you to Hades!
Edepol By Pollux! Gad! God! Mild expletive usually used by men
Ehem! Ha! Aha!
Eheu! Alas! Oh Shit! Used when expressing pain
Eho! See here! Look here now! Used when rebuking someone
Eho dum! Look here now!
Ei! (or Hei!) Ah! Expressing fear or dismay
Eia! (or Heia!) Ah! Aha!Good! Expressing joy or surprise
Eia! (or Heia!) [second meaning] Quick! Come on! Used when in a hurry
Eia age! Come on! Up then!
Eu! Fine! Great! Terrific!
Euax! Hooray!
Euge or Eugepae! Fine! Great! Terrific!
Fortuna te favet! Luck favors you! You lucky so-and-so!
Hem! Well! Expression of surprise
Hercle! (or Ercle!) By Hercules! Used for emphasis or to express strong feeling. Used by men only.
Heu! Oh! Ah! Alas! Expression of pain or dismay
Heus! Hey! Used to draw attention
Hui! Wow!
Ita me di juvent! So help me Gods!
Mecastor! By Castor! Goodness gracious! Mild expletive usually used by women
Mehercle!

Mehercule!

Mehercules!

By Hercules!
Merda! Shit!
Ohe! Oh!
Perge modo! Go on now! Now get going!
Podex! Ass!
Pol! By Pollux! Gads! Oh God!
Pro Iuppiter By Jupiter! By God! Used in anger or solemnly
Vae! Woe!
Vah! Ah! Oh! Expressing dismay, pain, annoyance, or contempt
Vaha! Aha! Expressing pleasant surprise
Vappa! Flat Wine! Brat! Good for nothing!